Dr. Angela Carter

Associate Professor, Department of Political Science & Balsillie School of International Affairs, University of Waterloo

Climate emergency, climate crisis, politics and policy of climate change, oil and gas, fossil fuels


Keeping Fossil Fuels in the Ground: The Future of Climate Policy?

Keynote Talk, Concordia University's "Sustainability and the Climate Crisis Conference," March 17, 2021

Politics and climate change expert discusses Andrew Scheer's climate plan and the future of carbon emissions in Canada

CBC News, June 19, 2019Television

URL: http://www.cbc.ca/player/play/1548102211785/

Angela Carter is a professor and politics and climate change specialist at the University of Waterloo. She joins CBC News Network's Andrew Nichols to weigh in on environmental policy and the controversial government decision to approve the TMX pipeline expansion.

CBC Radio's What on Earth, with host Laura Lynch, October 24, 2021Radio/Podcast

URL: https://www.cbc.ca/listen/live-radio/1-429-what-on-earth/clip/15873948-encore-canadas-climate-strategy-oil-gas-problem

(10:54-20:55 segment)

CBC Radio's The Current, with host Matt GallowayRadio/Podcast

URL: https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/over-a-barrel-the-current-for-nov-1-2021-1.6232557

(55:30-1:14:30 segment)

National Observer, December 8, 2021Radio/Podcast

URL: https://www.nationalobserver.com/podcast/race-against-climate-change

(24:19-31:41 segment)

570 News The Mike Farwell Show, June 25, 2019Radio/Podcast

URL: https://www.570news.com/2019/06/25/tuesday-june-25th-2019/

Interview begins at 77:05

What’s the Future of Oil in Canada?

The Walrus, Ask an Expert series, April 19, 2021Print

URL: https://thewalrus.ca/ask-an-expert-whats-the-future-of-oil-in-canada/

A critical step in the net-zero energy transition is modelling the future we’re aiming for

How to build a better Canada after COVID-19: Launch a fossil-free future

Canada's Energy-Crossroads Election

National Observer, October 18, 2019Online

URL: https://www.nationalobserver.com/2019/10/18/opinion/canada-having-energy-crossroads-election

Written in advance of the 2019 federal election with PhD students Truzaar Dordi and Yonatan Strauch.

Oil is On the Way Out, but NL is Going All-In

Fossilized: Environmental Policy in Canada's Petro-Provinces
by Carter, A.
UBC Press
October 15, 2021

Winner of the 2021 Donald Smiley Prize awarded to the best book published in English or French in a field relating to the study of government and politics in Canada by the Canadian Political Science Association.

Thanks to increasingly extreme forms of oil extraction, Canada’s largest oil-producing provinces underwent exceptional economic growth from 2005 to 2015. Yet oil’s economic miracle obscured its ecological costs. Fossilized traces this development trajectory, assessing how the governments of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador offered extensive support for oil development, and exploring the often downplayed environmental effects of extraction.

At the height of the boom, these oil-dependent provinces undermined their environmental policies or let them decay to boost production. Angela Carter investigates overarching institutional trends, such as the restructuring of departments that prioritized extraction over environmental protection, and identifies regulatory inadequacies related to environmental assessment, land-use planning, and emissions controls. Her detailed analysis situates these policy dynamics squarely within the historical and global context of late-stage petro-capitalism and growing neoliberalization of environmental policy.

Fossilized reveals a country out of step with the transition unfolding in response to the climate crisis. As the global community moves toward deep decarbonization, Canada’s petro-provinces have intensified oil production, intertwining their fate ever more closely with fossil fuel extraction – at great ecological and economic risk.

“Policy Pathways to Carbon Entrenchment: Responses to the Climate Crisis in Canada’s Petro-Provinces”

Published by Studies in Political Economy

September 22, 2018

This paper examines the diverse policy strategies that Canada’s largest oil-producing provinces have used to protect their oil sectors from constraints on emissions. Building from the literature on Canada’s staples/carbon trap, the paper explores how, over the most recent oil sector boom and bust period, Newfoundland and Labrador and Saskatchewan moved towards, but then avoided, constraining oil sector emissions. At the same time, Alberta implemented ostensibly pioneering climate policies but ultimately permitted significant emissions growth from the tar sands industry. The paper explains this variation by reviewing major institutional, interest group, and ideational conditions in each province, emphasizing the importance of non-oil interests contesting the oil sector and dominant notions of staples-led economic development.

URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07078552.2018.1492083?journalCode=rsor20


Dr. Angela V. Carter is an associate professor at the Department of Political Science & Balsillie School of International Affairs, University of Waterloo. Her current research focus is an international comparative project with Canadian case studies aimed at understanding the political conditions fostering legislation to keep fossil fuels in the ground -- an important new approach to confronting the climate crisis. Carter has a PhD from Cornell University, and has been teaching in the field of environmental policy and politics since 2008.

Past Talks

Film screening panel

Beyond Crisis: A Screening and Community Dialogue for Climate Action

Princess Theatre, Waterloo, September 23, 2019

Climate Policy Panel

How well do the Federal Election Parties rank in terms of Climate Change?

University of Waterloo, October 10, 2019

Where Do Ontario Parties Stand on the Environment?

Kitchener, May 3, 2018

Peoples Town Hall on the Trans Mountain Pipeline

Kitchener Public Library, Central Branch, July 12, 2018

Rise for Climate, Jobs, and Justice Waterloo Region

Waterloo Town Square, September 8, 2018

Canada, Oil and World Politics

Balsillie School of International Affairs, February 27, 2019

Green New Deal Town Hall

St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Kitchener, June 19, 2019

Pipelines, Tar Sands and the Climate

University of Waterloo, June 18, 2019

Research Grants

“Mapping the Power of the Carbon-Extractive Corporate Resource Sector”

Organization: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Date: June 1, 2015


Partnership grant, led by William Carroll (University of Victoria) and Shannon Daub (Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, BC)

"The Politics of Leaving Fossil Fuels in the Ground: Building and Testing Comparative Theory in Major Producing States"

Organization: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Date: June 1, 2018


Principal investigator, Insight Development Grant


  • Climate emergency
  • Climate crisis
  • Politics and policy of climate change
  • Oil and gas
  • Fossil fuels


  • Cornell University